Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that forms in cells present in the cervix. The cervix is the bottom straight end of the womb. The cervix acts as a bridge that connects between womb and the birth canal. Cervical cancer usually slowly develops over time in the cervix.
Before cancer appears in the region of the cervix, the cells of the cervix undergo a change phase known as dysplasia, in which the abnormal cells begin to appear in the cervical tissue. Over a period of time if the abnormal cells are not removed and they became cancer cells and start to grow and spread more deeply into the cervix region and surrounding regions. Cervical cancer can be prevented by the HPV vaccine and PAP smear screening.
The cervix can be classified into two main parts:
Endocervix is the inner part of the cervix that forms a bridge that connects the vagina to the womb. Th Endocervix is covered with flat thin cells known as squamous cells.
Ectocervix is the outer part of the cervix that can be seen by the gynaecologist during an examination of the cervix. Th Ectocervix will be also said to be exocervix.
Cervical cancer begins in the squamous cells of the transformation zone, which is the border between the endocervix and ectocervix. Most cervical cancers begin in these cells.
Cervical cancer can be of two types:
- squamous cell carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type (up to 90%), while adenocarcinoma is less common. Sometimes cervical cancer has the features of both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma this condition is said to be mixed carcinoma. In rare cases, cancer develops and spread to other cells in the cervix.
The Human Papillomavirus (HPV):
The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is a series of vaccines that protect against certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV). The HPV vaccine is available in two, four, and nine-dose schedules. All three types of vaccines are effective in preventing the development of cervical cancer and genital warts. In addition to protecting against the most common types of HPV that cause cervical cancer and genital warts, the vaccines can also protect against some non-genital cancers caused by HPV.
Symptoms of cervical cancers:
> pain occurs in the pelvic region.
> Pain during intercourse.
> Itching in the vagina.
> Burning sensation in the vagina
> Unusual discharge contains blood between periods and after the menopause stage.
> Abnormal vaginal bleeding.
> Blood during urination.
> Problem in having bowel movements.
> Swelling of the legs.
Treatment For Cervical Cancer:
High Radiation therapy that uses X-rays
Placing radioactive material inside the body helps in treating cancer.
Surgical procedure that helps in removing the affected tissue in the cervix.
Drug infusion in the body to kill the cancer cells.
Surgery that uses extreme cold to destroy cancer cells.
The surgical procedure of removing the cervix.